The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body enabling a wide range of movements including, forward flexion, abduction, adduction, external rotation, internal rotation, and 360-degree circumduction.
Thus, the shoulder joint is considered the most insecure joint of the body but the support of ligaments, muscles and tendons function to provide the required stability.
Bones of the Shoulder
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint made up of three bones, namely the humerus, scapula and clavicle.
The end of the humerus or upper arm bone forms the ball of the shoulder joint. An irregular shallow cavity in the scapula called the glenoid cavity forms the socket for the head of the humerus to fit in. The two bones together form the glenohumeral joint, which is the main joint of the shoulder.
Rotator Cuff Tear
The rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint providing support and enabling a wide range of motion. Major injury to these tendons may result in tear of these tendons, a condition called rotator cuff tear.
Pain in the shoulder suggests a shoulder injury which is more common in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.
The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder. The labrum is a ring of fibrous cartilage surrounding the glenoid for stabilization of the shoulder joint.
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
Shoulder Joint Replacement
Arthritis of the shoulder can cause pain, swelling and stiffness in the joint. The condition is treated by removing the damaged articulating parts and replacing them with prostheses.
Reverse Shoulder Replacement
Individuals with rotator cuff tear arthropathy (occurrence of shoulder arthritis and rotator cuff tear), a fully torn rotator cuff that is difficult to repair or prior failed shoulder replacement are candidates for reverse shoulder replacement.
Rotator Cuff Repair
Rotator cuff repair is a surgery to repair an injured or torn rotator cuff. It is usually performed arthroscopically on an outpatient basis. The arthroscope is a small, fiber-optic instrument consisting of a lens, light source, and video camera.
A SLAP repair is an arthroscopic shoulder procedure to treat a specific type of injury to the labrum called a SLAP tear.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an arthroscope.